I have just finished writing a new version of The Adaptation Diet (published by North Atlantic Books and to be released May 2013) which includes a new section on epigenetics, possibly the most important and powerful new information on how to lose weight and prevent chronic illness that I have seen in my 35 year medical career. This new version of the book adds invaluable ideas on how to employ these new scientific breakthroughs in your daily life.
Epigenetics explores how genes that are carried in the DNA express their information. It is such a dynamic field that over 16,000 scientific articles are published every year and many academic medical institutions have established departments of epigenetics. Andrew Feinberg MD from Johns Hopkins University Center for Epigenetics wrote an article in JAMA in 2008 calling epigenetics the center of modern medicine.
Why is epigenetics so revolutionary? In the past it was thought that whatever was inherited through the genes and DNA was fixed and unchangeable, our biological destiny written in the double helix of our DNA. One of the first clues that this was not so came from the world of honeybees. Scientists discovered that bees fed different foods as larvae became either workers or queen bees despite the exact same genetics. The differing diets of the larvae modified how their genes were expressed though a process called methylation which influences the structures around the genes and which genes are turned on or off.
In humans, the greatest influence on methylation, as well as other epigenetic process(such as histone modification), is diet as well. What we eat, even what your mother consumed before you were conceived, can influence your gene expression and biological destiny. Obesity, and the risks of developing chronic disease including diabetes, heart disease and cancer are all a result of epigenetic phenomena. The greatest positive influence on epigenetic expression appears to be from what are termed bioactive foods including broccoli and other crucifers, soy, turmeric and other spices, garlic, green tea and folate rich foods such as green leafy vegetables.
However there are also many disruptive influences on gene expression caused by changes in epigenetic states from exposure to environmental toxins such as BPA, PCB’s. phthalates and heavy metals. The interplay between adequate intake of bioactive foods and the amount of toxin exposure can determine so much about a person’s future health that I feel that epigenetic mechanisms are the most important focus in staying healthy.
I will write more about how to protect the epigenome and other new information from The Adaptation Diet in future posts including detailed information on bioactive foods and the toxins that have polluted the environment.